Terms Personality Assessment Methods Self-Report Method Likert Scales Scale Development


Personality Assessment Methods

Self-Report Method

Likert Scales

Scale Development

Projective Method



Indirect/Covert Approach


What are the Big 5

What is the Big 5








define: Personality

Outline the concepts in Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality.

What are the pleasure principle and the reality principle?

What does modern research suggest about Freud’s theory?

Describe the humanistic perspective.

Describe the Maslow theory of the Hierarchy of Needs.

define: self-actualization

What are the criticisms of Maslow’s theory?

define: Personality Trait

What are the two dimensions of Eysenck’s personality theory? Describe the person-situation controversy.

What does modern research suggest about trait theory?

define: Social-Cognitive Perspective

define: Reciprocal Determinism

List and describe the three specific ways in which persons and environments interact.

What does modern research suggest about the social-cognitive perspective?

define: the Barnum Effect

define: objective personality test

define: projective personality test

define: personality inventory

To what does the “Big Five” refer?

What are the main traits assessed by the Big Five?

Describe the Rotter Locus of Control Test.

What is the difference between an external and internal locus of control?

What is learned helplessness and how does it develop?

Describe the MMPI.

What does it mean for an inventory to be empirically derived.

Describe the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank.

Describe the Rorschach and how it is administered.

What is the Thematic Apperception Test?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of projective personality tests?

What is the self-serving bias?


What is personality?

projective test

What are the common characteristics of projective tests?

What is the Rorschach?

free association phase

inquiry phase

How is the Rorscach scored?

Thematic Apperception Test

How is the Thematic Apperception Test scored?

illusory correlation

What are the advantages of projective tests?

What are the disadvantages of projective tests?

objective test

What are the advantages of objective tests?

What are the disadvantages of objective tests?

content validation approach

empirical criterion keying approach



Fluid intelligence

crystallized intelligence

major domains that are typically measured during a neuropsychological evaluation

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

Patients with Broca’s aphasia sometimes exhibit __________________, while those with Wernicke’s aphasia are more likely to exhibit ______________.

All 152 terms

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Reliability, in a broad statistical sense, is synonymous with:

A source of error variance may take the form of:

Which type of reliability estimate is obtained by correlating pairs of scores from the same person (or people) on two different administrations of the same test?

A reliability coefficient is:

What is the difference between alternate forms and parallel forms of a test?

Which of the following types of reliability estimates is the most expensive due to the costs involved in test development?

An estimate of test-retest reliability is often referred to as a coefficient of stability when the time interval between the test and retest is more than:

As the reliability of a test increases, the standard error of measurement:

Which type of reliability estimate would be appropriate only when evaluating the reliability of a test that measures a trait that is relatively stable over time?

Which of the following is true of systematic error?

Computer-scorable items have tended to eliminate error variance due to:

Which of the following might lead to a decrease in test-retest reliability?

If items from a test are measuring the same trait, estimates of reliability yielded from KR-20 will typically be ________ as compared to estimates from split-half methods.

Which of the following is TRUE for estimates of alternate- and parallel-forms reliability?

If traditional measures of reliability are applied to criterion- referenced tests, the reliability estimates will likely be:

Test-retest estimates of reliability are referred to as measures of ________, and split-half reliability estimates are referred to as measures of ________.

For a heterogeneous test, measures of internal-consistency reliability will tend to be ________ compared with other methods of estimating reliability.

Which of the following factors may influence a split-half reliability estimate?

KR-20 is the statistic of choice for tests with which types of items?

The Spearman-Brown formula is used for:

Typically, adding items to a test will have what effect on the test’s reliability?

Which of the following is NOT an acceptable way to divide a test when using the split-half reliability method?

Coefficient alpha is appropriate to use with all of the following test formats EXCEPT:

Which of the following is TRUE about coefficient alpha?

A police officer mistakenly records the blood alcohol level of a suspected drunk driver after administering a breathalyzer test. This mistake is most related to which type of reliability?

A coefficient alpha over .9 may indicate that:

Which best conveys the meaning of an inter-scorer reliability estimate of .90?

If a time limit is long enough to allow test takers to attempt all items, and if some items are so difficult that no test taker is able to obtain a perfect score, then the test is referred to as a ________ test.

If a test is homogeneous:

Which type(s) of reliability estimates would be most appropriate for a measure of heart rate?

Typically, speed tests:

Which type(s) of reliability estimates would be appropriate for a speed test?

Generalizability theory is most closely related to

In classical test theory, there exists only one true score. In Cronbach generalizability theory, how many of these true scores exist?

Traditional measures of reliability are inappropriate for criterion-referenced tests because variability:

A test is considered valid when the test:

Face validity refers to:

Which is NOT a method of evaluating the validity of a test?

Predictive and concurrent validity can be subsumed under:

Face validity

Which assessment technique has the MOST face validity?

Relating scores obtained on a test to other test scores or data from other assessment procedures is typically done in an effort to establish the __________ validity of a test.

An instructor announces that an examination will cover the topics of reliability and validity. A student boasts that he will read and study only the material on reliability. In fact, all the test questions are only on reliability. The best conclusion a student of assessment could draw from this is that:

Before constructing a comprehensive final examination, your instructor reviews the objectives of the course, the textbook, and all lecture notes. Your instructor is making an effort to maximize the __________ validity of the final examination.

Lawshe devised a method for determining agreement among raters or judges who rate items on how essential they are. This method provides a way to quantify what type of validity?

In calculating the content validity ratio, panelists are asked to determine:

A standard against which a test or test score is evaluated is known as:

The minimum value of a content validity ratio necessary to be statistically significant at the .05 level is dependent on:

Which may best be viewed as varieties of criterion-related validity?

The form of criterion-related validity that reflects the degree to which a test score is correlated with a criterion measure obtained at the same time that the test score was obtained is known as:

The form of criterion-related validity that reflects the degree to which a test score correlates with a criterion measure that was obtained some time subsequent to the test score is known as:

A key difference between concurrent and predictive validity has to do with:

Which is an example of a criterion?

An index of utility can be distinguished from an index of reliability and an index of validity in that an index of utility can tell us something about:

Test validity:

One of the noneconomic benefits of a diagnostic test used to make decisions about involuntary hospitalization of psychiatric patients is a benefit to:

Costs associated with testing include all of the following EXCEPT:

The end-point of a utility analysis is typically an educated decision about:

A utility analysis is conducted using:

If targeted test-takers for a particular test consistently fail to follow the directions for taking the test then:

Validity is to ____________ as utility is to ____________.

A potential noneconomic benefit of a well-run evaluation program is:

The Angoff method of setting cutting scores relies heavily on:

The “Achilles heel” of the Angoff method is:

A hospital uses a compensatory model of selection in hiring surgeons. In their hiring evaluations, ratings regarding past safety record is given more weight than ratings regarding the surgeon’s “bedside manner.” From this, one could reasonably conclude that the people who are in charge of hiring surgeons believe that:

The term item-mapping refers to an IRT-based method of:

Which of the following is a direct economic cost that could result as a consequence of NOT evaluating personnel for employment positions within a large corporation?

The idea for a new test may come from:

This term is used to refer to the preliminary research surrounding the creation of a prototype of a test:

Often used for the purpose of licensing persons in professions, these tests are called:

Likert scales measure attitudes using continuums. A continuum of items measuring ___________ could be used for a Likert scale.

Test items that contain alternatives with five points ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree” are characterized as using this approach to scaling:

Guttman scales:

Which is an example of the selected-response item format?

Having a large item pool available during test revision is:

A well-written true-false item:

Computer-adaptive testing has been found to:

Item branching refers to:

Which statement is TRUE of the test tryout phase of test construction?

The item-validity index is key in determining:

An item-difficulty index of 1 occurs when:

The higher the item-difficulty index, the ________ the item.

In item analysis, the term item endorsement refers to the percent of test-takers who:

An item-reliability index provides a measure of a test’s:

An item-difficulty index can range from ________ to ________.

In Sternberg’s study of the characteristics of academic intelligence, laypeople stressed the “interpersonal and social aspects,” whereas experts stressed:

The test that launched the testing movement in the United States was the ______ test.

Neisser argued that intelligence:

What conclusion concerning intelligence could reasonably be drawn based on the 1921 symposium published in the Journal of Educational Psychology?

Binet believed that the primary purpose of an intelligence test was to assist the test user in:

Galton’s conception of intelligence focused on:

The Wechsler tests of intelligence:

According to Wechsler, as cited in the text, intelligence should be conceived as a __________capacity that is best measured by measuring ______________ abilities.

The Stanford-Binet-5 is based on which theory?

Binet, Wechsler, and Piaget would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

According to Wechsler’s approach to cognitive assessment of adults and children, which of the following is TRUE?

The WPPSI-III is used to measure the intelligence of children from ages ________ through ________.

The concepts of social intelligence, concrete intelligence, and abstract intelligence are collectively best associated with which theorist?

Which of the following is NOT true of Piaget’s stages?

According to Piaget, a form of cognitive structure or organization is referred to as:

Which statement is NOT true of Cattell’s two-factor theory of intelligence?

Who first hypothesized that the proportion of the variance that a number of tests have in common accounts for a general factor of intelligence?

Logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, linguistic, musical, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence are all associated with which theory of intelligence?

Crystallized intelligence includes:

Which of the following best characterizes the basis of CHC theory?

According to Howard Gardner, the ability to form an accurate and realistic view of oneself would be referred to as what type of intelligence?

Spearman’s g factor refers to:

The best measure of “intelligence” in very young children could probably be obtained by:

In discussing the role of personality in the measured intelligence of infants, the term ________ is used.

Which is a technique or method used to minimize cultural bias in tests?

Public Law 95-561 defines giftedness with reference to:

Since the 1921 Symposium on Intelligence, researchers and theorists have agreed that:

Children’s intelligence is assessed primarily for:

A child is administered an IQ test at age 5 and another at age 10. The reported score at age 10 is much higher than the reported score at age 5. This may be because:

A child’s IQ test score may be influenced by:

The Flynn effect is characterized by:

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the stability of intelligence?

Which is a reasonable conclusion regarding our current state of knowledge regarding intelligence?

Starting with moderately difficult test items and then giving easier or harder items, depending on the test-taker’s performance, is termed:

A ceiling level refers to the:

On the Wechsler tests of intelligence, the Full Scale IQ has a mean of ________________ and a standard deviation of _______________.

The WISC-IV is appropriate for:

Group intelligence tests:

Compared with individually administered intelligence tests, group intelligence tests:

Children deemed to be at risk are:

Psychoeducational test batteries are designed to measure:

If John earns a full-scale IQ of 90 on the WISC-IV:

Normative information is available in the test’s manual for WAIS-IV test-takers:

The fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was based on which theory of intelligence?

How many people were in the standardization sample for the fifth edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale?

When administering an individual test of intelligence, the examiner is alert to:

Which would NOT be considered extra-test behavior on the part of a test-taker?

Stanford-Binet Full Scale scores are converted into nominal categories designated by certain cutoff boundaries. For example, an SB5 measured IQ in the range of 110 to 119 falls into the __________ category.

Which of the following is NOT a variable assessed as part of an APGAR evaluation?

An instrument used to identify which children should receive a more comprehensive evaluation is, most likely, a ______ instrument.

The history of personality types dates at least as far back as the days of:

A personality trait:

138. Personality tests are used for:

Which BEST describes what is typically measured in personality assessment?

On the Self-Directed Search, terms such as Artistic, Enterprising, and Investigative are examples of:

Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These variables are all measured by which personality assessment instrument?

The Big 5 was developed by:

Projective tests are _____ methods of personality assessment.

Projective tests

The Rorschach test:

Behavioral assessment tends to focus on:

Which of the following is TRUE of behavioral assessment?

Which is NOT a quantifiable definition of a target behavior?

A culturally sensitive psychological assessment includes sensitivity to which of the following?

The DSM-IV has _____ number of axis:

A clinical psychologist would be LEAST likely to use individually administered tests:

The DSM-IV-TR is a diagnostic system that is used by psychologists:

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