Sorry for the limited time. I need the answer in 1.5 hours. I put the deadline at 6 but actually I need it at 5:30. Please help me out with these questions and give the correct answer. Thanks for your understanding. I can raise up the price if you want.
1) Which of the following organs is NOT involved in regulating the ECF volume and osmolarity of the body fluids?a. adrenal cortexb. All the listed organs are involvedc. lungsd. livere. kidney
2) Which of the following factors will NOT affect the stroke volume?
a. epinephrineb. sympathetic stimulation of the myocardiumc. All of the choices will affect the stroke volume.
d. parasympathetic stimulation of the myocardium e. end-diastolic volume
3) Vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone
a. Two of the choices are correct. b. Is a steroid hormone released from the posterior pituitary.c.Triggers the reabsorption of sodium from the collecting ducts. d. Will stimulate an increase in the extracellular fluid volume.e. Promotes the excretion of water into urine
4) The tubular fluid is ________ to plasma as it enters Bowman’s space, ______ to plasma at the beginning of the loop of Henle, ______ to plasma at the bottom of the loop and ________ to plasma as it leaves the loop to enter the distal convoluted tubule.
a. Hypoosmotic; isosmotic; hyperosmotic; hypoosmoticb.
b. Isosmotic; isosmotic; hypoosmotic; hyperosmoticc.
c. Hypoosmotic; isosmotic; hyperosmotic; isosmoticd.
d. Isosmotic; isosmotic; hyperosmotic; hypoosmotice.
e. Isosmotic; hypoosmotic; hyperosmotic; isosmotic
5) Each of the following statements concerning atrial systole is true, except one. Identify the exception.a. All of the statements are true.b. At the beginning of atrial systole, there is very little blood in the ventricles.c. During atrial systole, the AV valves are open and the semilunar valves are closed.d. During atrial systole, the pressure in the atrium is higher than the pressure in the ventricle.e. The volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of atrial systole is the end-diastolic volume.
6) Which of the following statements is FALSE?a. The right heart is part of the pulmonary circulation.b. The endocardium is the innermost layer of the heart. c. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood, whereas the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood. d. The AV valves have 3 cusps (flaps).e. All of the choices are true.
7) Which of the statements about the countercurrent multiplier system of the kidney is FALSE?a. It allows the kidneys to make hypotonic urine.b. Requires that the filtrate and the blood flow in the opposite direction.c. Would not function if the ascending limb of the loop of Henle were freely permeable to water.d. Requires that the collecting ducts be near the loops of Henle.e. All the statements are true.
8) Which of the following statements concerning the capillaries is FALSE?a. Large proteins can be exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluid by endocytosis and exocytosis.b. Increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure increases the filtration rate. c. It is possible for a capillary to filter at its arterial end and absorb at its venous end.d. Velocity of blood flow is faster in the capillaries than in the veins.
e. Discontinuous endothelium is more likely to be found in liver capillaries than in the brain capillaries.
9) Which is NOT a transport mechanism typically seen in renal tubular epithelial cells? a. Aquaporin 2 channels that allow water to diffuse from inside the proximal tubule cells into the renal interstitial fluid.b. Ion channels that allow Na+ to move by diffusion from the lumen of the proximal tubule into the tubule cells.c. Countertransport proteins that move Na+ into proximal tubule cells while moving H+ from the cells into the lumen.
d. Cotransport proteins in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule that move Na+ and glucose from the filtrate into the tubule cells. e. All the choices are correct, none are wrong.
10) Which of the following statements about the cardiac cycle is TRUE?a. The QRS wave occurs just before atrial contraction. b. The duration of systole is greater than that of diastole.c. During isovolumetric ventricular relaxation, blood is flowing from the atria into the ventricles. d. The second heart sound is due to the semilunar valves closing.e. More than one of the choices is correct.
11) During an unforced exhalation/expiration, all of the following are true EXCEPT a. Lung volume decreases b. Alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressurec. Transpulmonary pressure decreases d. Intrapleural pressure is greater than alveolar pressuree. The diaphragm relaxes
12) Samples of blood and urine are taken from a volunteer. It is found that the plasma inulin concentration is 0.3 mg/ml, the urine inulin concentration is 22 mg/ml, and urine is being produced at 2.4 ml/min. What is the glomerular filtration rate?a. 176 ml/minb. 2.75 mg/minc. 0.033 mg/mind. 2.75 ml/mine. 176 mg/min
Anaphylactic shock is an extreme allergic reaction. One of the results of anaphylactic shock is the release of histamine. Histamine makes the capillaries much more permeable, resulting in a massive shift of fluid and dissolved solutes from the plasma into the interstitial fluid.
13) Which of the following would result from anaphylactic shock?a. There would be a large drop in the osmolarity of the ECF.b. Two of the statements are true.c.Mean arterial pressure would drop.d. Cardiac output would increase.e. Venous return would be elevated.
14) Which of the following responses would occur due to anaphylactic shock?a. Baroreceptors would increase their firing rate. b. Aldosterone release would be inhibited.c. Osmoreceptors would increase their firing rate.d. ADH secretion would be inhibited.e. Decreased sympathetic nerve activity to the macula densa cells.
15) During inspiration, when alveolar pressure drops to allow the inflow of air, the lungs remain inflated and fill the thoracic cavity. What prevents them from collapsing during inspiration?a. The intrapleural pressure becomes greater than the alveolar pressure.b. The incoming air pushes the lungs out.c. The lungs are firmly attached by connective tissue to the thoracic wall.d. The volume of the pleural cavity expands along with the lungs at inspiration.e. The intercostal muscles pull the lung walls out.
16) When the diaphragm contracts:
I. the alveolar pressure decreases
II. the internal intercostal muscles collapse the rib cage
III. the size of the thoracic cavity decreases
a. Only II and III are trueb. Only III is truec. Only I is trued. Only II is truee. Only I and III are true
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