Phoebe is taking samples from a lake to determine how the populations of aquatic life change during the summer. Each week for a month she takes samples from different areas of the lake. Over the cours

Phoebe is taking samples from a lake to determine how the populations of aquatic life change during the summer. Each week for a month she takes samples from different areas of the lake. Over the course of a month, she finds the marine life listed in the chart below. What should Phoebe change about her methodology to better address her question?.

Location 1

Location 2

Location 3

Location 4





A. Location 1 has a larger food source than location 4.
B. Location 3 gets more sunlight than location 2.
C. Crawfish prefer the food source at location 4.
D. Fish prefer the food source at location 1.





A man whose father, sister, maternal grandmother and both grandfathers developed diabetes is concerned that he might also develop diabetes. Which of the following would be most likely to lower his risk of developing diabetes?

Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly to keep his weight down.


In terms of structure and function, how do the vacuoles in a typical plant cell compare to those of a typical animal cell?

Plant cell vacuoles are usually larger than animal cell vacuoles because they store both food and enzymes.


A high school biology teacher asks her students to collect daily rainfall amounts at each of their homes during the summer. The results will be collected and used to establish a baseline for local weather patterns. What one aspect of the data gathering should the teacher emphasize most to the class?

Using a standard unit of measure for the duration of the study


Which of the following describes why phospholipids are better suited to forming the cell membrane than regular fats or steroids?

Their phosphate group gives them a hydrophilic end.


If the temperature of our oceans continues to rise, what possible long-term effect will this have on marine organisms?

The available oxygen of ocean waters will decrease, thus reducing marine life diversity.


Which of the following best describes how the first organic molecules on the early Earth may have been formed?

Enzymes catalyzed reactions between smaller organic molecules to form larger ones.


Which organism most likely has 10% of the Sun’s energy available for its use?


A diagram of a forest food web. The web includes shrubs and elm tree at the bottom of the web and the hawk at the top. Other organisms include mouse, bacteria, fungi, insects, elm tree, bird, snakes and hawk. All organisms in the web are connected to bacteria and fungi. In addition, shrubs are connected to the mouse. The elm tree is connected to insects. Insects are connected to the bird. The bird is connected to the hawk and the snake. The mouse is connected to snakes and the hawk. Snakes are connected to the hawk.



Isabella works for an environmental safety group. Her group wants to answer the question “To what lengths must we go to protect plants and animals?” Why is her group’s research question flawed?

They are trying to answer an ethical question, not a scientific one.


Why did Pasteur’s work lead to a change in modern cell theory?

His work, which was documented and repeatable, contradicted the accepted cell theory, so a change in the theory was required.


Phoebe is taking samples from a lake to determine how the populations of aquatic life change during the summer. Each week for a month she takes samples from different areas of the lake. Over the course of a month, she finds the marine life listed in the chart below. What should Phoebe change about her methodology to better address her question?

Take samples from the same location each time.


The compound light microscope is most useful for viewing

tissue samples and cells


Which of the following best describes how the parent cell produces daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes during asexual reproduction?

The chromosomes are copied during interphase, and during mitosis they separate into two nuclei.


Some species of organisms can reproduce either asexually through mitosis or sexually, which requires meiosis. In which of the following situations would it be the most beneficial for a species to reproduce sexually rather than asexually?

One in which the environment undergoes sudden, drastic changes


What do you predict would happen to a cell in which tRNA were unable to function properly during protein synthesis?

The mRNA would not be translated into a sequence of amino acids.


Sickle cell anemia is a recessive disorder that is only expressed if inherited from which of the following?

Both parents


Scientists have found that all living things, from bacteria to humans, rely on genetic codes to direct the functions of their cells. These genetic codes are contained in strings of nucleotides and have very similar structures. Which hypothesis for the origin of life on Earth is supported by this evidence?

Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere produced amino acids that are used in cells today.


Phoebe observes a group of snowy egrets feeding at several locations near her home. She would like to learn what foods the egrets prefer at each location. What can Phoebe infer from the data in the table?



Location 1


Location 2


Location 3


Location 4









































Egrets that prefer crawfish are more likely to frequent location 4.


Which of the following best describes how the photosynthesis in grass cells is related to the cellular respiration in a cow’s cells?

The energy stored in the grass cells’ glucose during photosynthesis is eaten and used by the cow’s cells to make ATP during cellular respiration.


Bacteria can develop mutations that provide them with resistance to antibiotic medications. Why would giving multiple antibiotics at once be less likely to create a population of resistant bacteria?

Most bacteria would not develop all the mutations needed to resist multiple antibiotics given at the same time.


Rabbits can breed for the first time at the age of three months. They have a gestation period of about 31 days and there can be anywhere from 4 to 12 young in each litter. What would be the most likely long-term consequence if a breeding pair of rabbits were released into an ecosystem with no predators large enough to eat a rabbit?

The rabbit population would grow quickly until all the edible vegetation was gone and then the rabbit population would crash.


Which of the following best explains how hydrogen bonding affects the heat of vaporization for water?

The hydrogen bonds cause water to resist a change in temperature.


In humans, the allele for brown eyes is dominant to the allele for blue eyes. If a man with blue eyes and a woman with brown eyes who is homozygous for eye color have children, what is the probability of having a child with blue eyes?

0 percent


Which type of mutation results in a base pair within a DNA sequence being replaced with a different pair?



Plant and animal cells differ in shape. Plant cells are usually box-shaped, while animal cells tend to be irregularly shaped. Which of the following comparisons correctly identifies the reason for this difference?

Unlike plant cells, animal cells lack a cell wall.


Which of the following would present the strongest evidence in a commercial promoting a new pain reliever?

Details of testing conducted by an unbiased group of scientists


Cellular respiration converts the reactants’ oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The reverse reaction of photosynthesis converts reactants of carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose. These two reactions are part of which biogeochemical cycle?

Carbon cycle


The Jones family of Jacksonville would like to live more sustainably by reducing their fossil fuel use. They already carpool and have reduced their electricity use. In addition to what they are already doing, which of the following would be most helpful in further reducing their fossil fuel use?

Removing most of the grass in their yard and replacing it with a vegetable garden.


Which of the following correctly shows the reactants and products of photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide + water + energy → oxygen + glucose


Which of the following would most likely happen if DNA polymerase were not functioning properly during DNA replication?

The new strands of DNA would not be an exact copy of the original DNA.


Genetically modified beef offers great benefits to producers and farmers. Buyers should be aware of which of the following regarding this biotechnology?

Potential effects on those who consume it


What is the most important reason to publish results as part of the scientific process?

It allows other scientists to check findings.


Mutations can occur as a result of many factors, including ultraviolet light or environmental pollutants such as pesticides and cigarette smoke. Which of the following best describes the most likely consequence of these mutations in cells?

The cells can become cancer cells.


Why is the cell theory a theory and not a law?

The cell theory explains the natural world.


Which of the following environmental parameters would be important to monitor in order to ensure sustainable logging?

The number of new trees planted to replace those removed


Compare the costs and benefits of biomass energy with coal, another carbon-based resource.

Both biomass and coal energies are inexpensive, but they release greenhouse gases.


A large, old tree deep in the forest was knocked down in a windstorm. As it fell, it pushed four other somewhat smaller trees down with it, opening up quite a large patch of sunlight in an area that had been shady for many decades. What is most likely to happen in the sunny patch in terms of plant growth?

Seeds of sun-loving plants will germinate and grow in it.


How would spraying a yard with chemical pesticides to control insects be most likely to affect the diversity of insects found in it?

There would be fewer species of insects and fewer insects in general in the yard.


Jamie is reviewing a new diet plan that involves purchasing pre-packaged meals and taking a patented energy supplement. In an ad explaining how it works, Jamie reads about a study cited as evidence supporting the effectiveness of the plan. In the study, two groups were followed: one following the plan and another following a simple low-carbohydrate diet. What should Jamie look for in the study to have full confidence in its scientific reliability?

Details on the number of studies conducted and the results of each trial


Which of the following best describes the result of meiosis II?

Four genetically different, haploid daughter cells


Jason is conducting an experiment to compare the germination rates of tomato seeds in three groups, two of which were treated with a certain fertilizer. Which of the following would be best for conveying growth rates over time?

Line chart


Which of the following correctly identifies the reactants and products of aerobic cellular respiration?

Glucose + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide + ATP


Blood type in humans is an example of trait that has multiple alleles. The alleles for type A blood and type B blood are codominant, and type O blood is recessive to both type A and type B. If a girl with type AB blood has a brother with type O blood and a sister with type B blood, which of the following genotypes could it be possible for their parents to have?

AO and BO


A molecule of ATP contains adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups. The bond between the last two phosphates is easily broken, resulting in a molecule of ADP and one phosphate group. If the bond between the second and third phosphate groups were more stable, what would be the most likely consequence?

More energy would be required to break the bond, so the net energy produced would be less.


Which of the following correctly explains the role of enzymes in biochemical reactions?

Enzymes bond with one or more reactants and lower the activation energy needed for the reaction.


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