Hi, I need help with essay on Environmental Fluid Mechanics. Paper must be at least 2000 words. Please, no plagiarized work!
Underground streams, in caves are considered open channels as long as they have free surfaces. Natural channels are usually irregular in cross section and alignment and in character and roughness of stream bed. Streams with erodible material may frequently or continuously shift their location and cross-section.
Such irregularities and changes in natural streams introduce engineering problems, for example, in navigation and flood control, which treats only of flow in fixed channels of uniform roughness. Artificial channels are those that are built for various purposes. In water power development, water is brought from streams or reservoirs to head works above water plants. In irrigation, water is brought from streams or reservoirs to storage ponds or tanks or directly to lands to be irrigated. In the city water supply, water is brought from streams or storage reservoirs to ponds supplying city distribution systems. Sewerage, city sewerage, although usually covered conduits or pipes, ordinarily are designed as open channels because they are not supposed to flow but to have a free surface under atmospheric pressure. In drainage, low-lying, swampy, or waterlogged lands are frequently made productive by draining them through open ditches or by laying and covering pipe which may or may not flow full. In flood control, protection of cities or valuable lands from floods often requires improving a natural channel by straightening, cleaning, or paving to increase its capacity, or buy building additional flood channels on new locations.
Design of the open channel:
From the topographic map that was taken from the Data Library, University of Edinburgh, the first thing to be done is to modify further the topographic map. The designation of elavations to 1(one) meter interval to get the precise elevation of the pathway of the proposed design of the open channel is important. From the modified topographic map, we are now able to pinpoint the exact location or track of the open channel. From the elevation of Esthwaite water which is 65 meters, it will flow down to an elevation of 39 meters which is the elevation of Windermere Lake. The analysis of the critical points of the channel is very necessary because it will determine the design of the open channel to be constructed. The length of the open channel is approximately 3.25 kilometers from Esthwaite Water to WindermereLake. Assign point 0+000 at the mouth of the channel which is at southern most tip of Esthwaite Water. Hence, cross-section of the open channel track at a 100 meters interval must be plotted in order to make the specific design or the slope and elevation at that particular place or station. Aside from the plotting of the 100 meter interval of the proposed track, critical points must also be noted and, cross sectional drawings must be done. This is to make sure that the design of the open channel is efficient, and that the estimate to be done in the construction is factual. But as we can see from the open channel layout map, the elevation from the southern tip of Estwaite Water which is station 0+000 to station 2+000 is constant. But at station 0+030, the channel will have to cross a road. The road elevation is at approximately 67 meters as shown in the map, therefore the channel
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