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The Jainist approach to ethics is based on self-denial in a somewhat form of bondage in order to conquer all manners of desire and senses to give up all pleasures and passions (Bilimoria, Prabhu, &. Sharma, 2007). They believe that the world is made up of two elementary/ basic parts being the living and the non-living and that life is so precious and should not be tampered with at any time. This principle makes the Jainist to not only be vegetarians but only eat the by-products of living things such as fruits and milk only without terminating a life as they have the view that every living thing has a soul. Jainists have the view that there are innumerable substances whereby each has innumerable aspects, and that there are innumerable atoms and souls in the universe that have innumerable characteristics. They also hold the view that all matter and souls have their own independent existence in what is known as the realist pluralism and that every substance has both positive and negative characters. Jainist also respect other peoples view on something as they believe that every substance has multiple aspects and that the knowledge of human is highly limited and cannot know everything about an object and that every judgement is subject to some conditions and limitations. They believe there is no single statement that can explain the complexity of an object and that the knowledge of a thing is determined in relation to another and is relative. Jaina thinkers also hold the view that every substance has an essential character and an accidental character and that the substance cannot exist without the essential character. In a soul for instance, the essential character is consciousness whereas the accidental character of soul is desire, pain, volitions, pleasures and passions (Bilimoria, Prabhu, &. Sharma, 2007). In soul liberation, one has to get rid of the accide3ntal characters of the soul in self-denial in order to live in a manner that is desirable and exemplifies respect for the universe. Jainist states that association of the body with the soul make the soul to be in bondage and liberation of the soul can only be achieved through separation of matter from the soul. Thus, it is internal and external passion that leads us to bondage and suffering and liberation can only be achieved through differentiation of the body from the soul. Jainist have ultimate respect for life in a principle and believe that one should not even have the thought of terminating a life and that one should abstain from all forms of desires and worldly passions (Bilimoria, Prabhu, &. Sharma, 2007). There is also the principle of abstinence from falsehood for one to be able to conquer the accidental character of the soul and the principle of abstinence from theft as property is accorded the sanctity of life and also abstinence from self-indulgence. On the other hand, the Carvaka is sceptical schools of thought that challenges all other schools of thought including Jainism and Buddhism and seeks to find the truth.
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