Create a 4 page essay paper that discusses Antibacterial and biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles and graphene composite.Graphene has oxygen-containing groups embedded in its honeycomb-like s

Create a 4 page essay paper that discusses Antibacterial and biomedical applications of gold nanoparticles and graphene composite.

Graphene has oxygen-containing groups embedded in its honeycomb-like six-atom carbon rings. Graphene oxide (GO) is used to in imaging and delivery of drugs (p.365). Georgakilas et al. says that the existences of carbon nano-structures in graphene enables it to form organic polimers which are very important in the formation of polimer composites which are important in biomedical application (p.4). also supports Yang et al. on the issue (n.d, p.1-59)

T Yang et al. (2013), continue to say that the properties of graphene is also useful making of biological, pathogenic and pharmacological processes that make it necessary delivering therapeutic drugs since its used for the detection of specific proteins through the “sand witch ” immunoassay which is useful in the binding of proteins and secondary antibody. This is why the graphene is used in the creation of cancer-detection biomarker. This occurs when the layers of graphene are used to increase the surface area for capturing large amounts of Ab1 and when it is further amplified. it achieves multi-enzyme-Ab2 which is functionalized carbon nanospheres (Yang et al. 2013, p.367).

Graphene is also used in quenching the fluorescence of other fluorescent dyes which is used in fabricating fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). FRET sensors are used for monitoring ssDNA (Yang et al. 2013, p.367).

According to Polte et al. (2010), Gold can be used in various fields of medicine, biotechnology, and catalysis. This makes it one of the most important subjects in the study of nanoscale materials. Gold nanoparticles are prepared using various processing routes like chemical, sonochemical and photochemical paths. However it is mainly made through the precipitation of the GNP in aqueous solution from dissolved gold precursors like HAuCL4 using reducing agents like sodium citrate, ascorbic acid, sodium boron hydride or block copolymers which

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