Complete 3 page APA formatted essay: How the World Empires of the late Iron Age Near East (Assyria, Babylon, Persia) fundamentally reshaped the political and socia.Download file to see previous pages…
This civilization started with the Sumerians at about 5000 BC and continued through the bronze and iron ages until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC or Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. In fact, the iron age, the final technological and cultural stage in the Stone–Bronze–Iron-Age sequence, started in the Ancient Near East in about 1300 BC (Waldbaum 1978). During the Iron Age, there were several regional powers, each vying for dominance of the region. These powers include the kingdoms of Assyria, Babylonia, Luwian, Aramaic, Urartu and the Persian Empires. Following the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III, Assyria assumed a position of great regional power, competing with its southern Mesopotamian rival Babylonia. The Persian Empire at the height of its power, rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. It was the largest empire of classical antiquity, spanning three continents that include Asia Minor, Thrace, many of the Black Sea, Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and all significant population centers of ancient Egypt as far west and east as Libya, Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, and Central Asia. These kingdoms were, indeed, center of civilization (Waldbaum 1978). They were the first to practice intensive year-round agriculture by taking advantage of the accessible water supply, which provide water for irrigation, and the ideal climate. They also gave the rest of the world the first system of writing in addition to inventing the potter’s wheel and the vehicular- and mill wheel. Notable among their influence in history and contribution to civilization is their centralized system of government, law codes, social stratification, and organized warfare. In fact, the idea of political or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive (king) to which all other authorities must submit have its root in the Ancient Near East. Furthermore, these empires gave the world the first codified legal system. The Babylonian Code of Hammurabi provides an example: “If any one ensnares another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.” Their tax structure, which was basically rent, was apparently based on the principle that all of the conquered lands were the actual property of the king. One of their most influential contributions is their religious thoughts. For instance, the cosmogonies of Egypt, Babylonia, Phoenicia, and Anatolia were transmitted in part to the West and formed the basis of much of the cosmogonies of Hesiod and the Orphics before 600 BC, as well as the background for the cosmogonies of Thales and Anaximander in the 6th century BC (Encyclop?dia Britannica). In addition, the religious tradition of the Near East Kingdom also influenced Pythagorean and Platonic thinking. Furthermore Stoic philosophy was influenced by Babylonian astrology. As mentioned above, the empires of the Near East are reputed for their centralized system of government. At the center of government was the Kings, known as king of kings. His court is composed of powerful hereditary landholders, the upper echelons of the army, the harem, religious functionaries, and the bureaucracy that administered the whole (Encyclop?dia Britannica). The provinces were administered by governors, appointed by the king of kings
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