ATC (Air Traffic Control System)

ATC System (Air traffic control system) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions, organize and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, or is operated by the military

Air Traffic Management (ATM) System

Air traffic control is very complicated and involves multiple controls along with an elevated workload.  Over the years, commercial aviation has grown tremendously and the demand has produced many difficulties and overcrowding in the air.  This growth has resulted in the need for a new Air Traffic Management (ATM) system.  Various ideas of next generation ATM systems are being established and planned.  The object is for as many aircraft as conceivable to fly in a common airspace, at the same time, safely, and without conflict.  Handling conflict resolution in multiple sectors rather than individual sectors is a strategy being measured. One main critical role of the ATM system is keeping aircraft separated.  The separation standard is five nautical miles for horizontal and on thousand feet for vertical separation in airspace.  In addition to separation minimums, traffic flow management is being discussed to minimize constraints and conflicts. 

The Complexity Map

Currently, conflict is resolved by aircraft situated in a sector.  The minimum separations are confirmed only after the jet meets the sector border. Proactive actions are being engaged to look into the upcoming airplane amending arrival times to a fixed entry point.   In detail, controlling arrival times via speed modification to reduce overcrowding and congestion. To achieve this goal, a complexity map is presented.  The complexity map shows how much control is necessary to resolve conflicts by an incoming airliner. Future approaches to conflict management should continue to develop and be tested and certified. 

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