1.In many preliterate societies, witchcraft serves as an everyday, socially acceptable way of managing tension, explaining the otherwise

1.In many preliterate societies, witchcraft serves as an everyday, socially acceptable way of managing tension, explaining the otherwise unexplainable, leveling disparities in wealth and status, and resolving social conflict. True False 2.Witches and sorcerers areA. universally understood as harbingers of misfortune and evilB. terms that are used interchangeably in anthropology to refer to those who manipulate supernatural forces to do harm to othersC. increasingly being differentiated in the field of anthropology on the basis of the source of their power and their physical and social associationsD. essentially the same except that witches tend to be female, awhile sorcery is an exclusively male profession; therefore, both roles are often represented in preliterate societies3. Education level is a determining factor in cultural beliefs about witchcraft. True False 4.The “labeling theory of deviance” asserts thatA. the designation of deviance is entirely dependent upon the world-view and customs of a particular societyB. there are at least four different levels of deviance in any society ranging from mild impropriety to social pariahsC. once members of society have been labeled as deviants, they become the lowest common denominator socially and, thereby, are assigned only partial personhood in the societyD. the designation of behavior as deviant focuses on the reaction of involved instead of on the act itself5. In Thomas’ article, Witchcraft is a popular explanation for HIV due toA. rapid and often unpredictable socio-economic changeB. high rate of illness and death in persons of prime working ageC. traditional regional attribution of misfortune to witchcraftD. all of these6. The linkage of witchcraft to HIV/AIDS in Namibia has __ incidence of HIV/AIDS testing and diagnosis.A. maintainedB. slightly decreasedC. increasedD. dramatically decreased7. Among the Kabana of West New Britain, the sorcerer’s threat inhibits deviance and mediates conflict so successfully that no one is actually ever sorcerized. True False 8.In Namibia, a witchcraft accusation can result inA. increased isolation and severing of social ties for the victim and their familyB. increased isolation and severing of social ties for the accused and their familyC. neither of theseD. both of these9. Victims of sorcery among the Kabana are assumed to have violated social mores and values, thereby infringing on the rights of others. True False 10. Among the Kabana, the decision to sorcerize and the execution of that decisionA. is made outside the village so that sorcerers in the village who are related to the intended victim cannot sense the intent to attackB. is a personal matter negotiated in secrecyC. is only made by the head of a family clan, although he can often be persuaded when enough of his extended family is in favorD. should result from corporate deliberation and follow certain procedural rules11. Kabana sorcerers may sometimes leave “calling cards” to announce the impending intent to sorcerize the victim. True False 12. “Esbats” are seasonal ritual meetings. True False 13. According to the reading, most covens hold their meetings in the nude. True False 14. Luhrmann, a witch herself, traces the modern revival of witchcraft toA. a modern reexamination of the goddess cults and festivals held in Ancient Greece in honor of AphroditeB. ancient Pagan magico-religious cults rediscovered in Celtic texts and artifactsC. the anthropological dissemination of ancient (pre-Christian) Sumerian goddess rites previously unknown in the Western worldD. the fictitious ethnographys and other writings produced by Gerald Gardner in the 1940s15. According to Luhrmann, feminist covensA. emphasize collectivity and creativity more than other types of modern witchcraftB. have only been identified in the past and are not part of modern witchcraftC. rely the most heavily on historical documents like ancient Sumerian and Egyptian texts associated with Goddess worshipD. are relatively rare in the United States but very popular in England16. Modern witchcraft is a religious movement that is almost entirely made up of disenchanted “thirty-something” intellectuals. True False 17. The title of Lurhmann’s article, “The Goat and the Gazelle,” refers toA. two distinct ancient rituals marking the decay of nature in the fall and its subsequent rebirth in the springB. the coupling of romantic spiritual intensity with the paunchy flaws of the fleshC. the inherent complementarity and integration of female and male images and symbols in the practice of witchcraftD. the two distinct branches of witchcraft: those who allow male member and those who do not18. Gmelch asserts that while there is a great deal of ritual surrounding pitching and fielding, there is relatively little concerned with hitting. True False 19. Non-rational beliefs from the basis of baseball taboos and fetishes. True False 20. In his investigation into baseball magic, Gmelch defines ritual asA. a symbolic assertion of control over the uncontrollableB. a prescribed behavior in which there is no empirical connection between the means and the desired endC. a prescribed behavior that supports the core beliefs of a systemD. a behavior that is done in a methodical and routinized way21. Most rituals performed by baseball players come fromA. childhood mentors such as fathers and coachesB. really good personal performancesC. Christian fold traditionsD. myths of baseball culture22. According to Gmelch, when players are in a slump theyA. abide by their rituals stringently in an effort to turn their luck aroundB. will add elements to their preexisting ritual, but they will hardly ever remove behavior from their ritualsC. usually make a deliberate effort to change their rituals in an attempt to shake off bad luckD. tend to do the exact opposite of their former ritual, as all behavior associated with it has now become taboo23. Mentioning a “no-hitter” while one is in progress is an example of aA. taboo grounded in baseball cultureB. fetishC. ritual of baseball culture as old as the game itselfD. personal and idiosyncratic taboo24. B. F. Skinner used pigeons to demonstrate how and why personal rituals are established in the first place. True False 25. Gmelch concludes that fielding in baseball is very similar toA. open sea fishing among the Trobriand because of its lack of associated magicB. inner lagoon fishing among the Trobriand because of all the magic and ritual associated with the practiceC. inner lagoon fishing among the Trobriand because of the lack of associated magic and ritualD. open sea fishing among the Trobriand because of all the magic and ritual associated with the practice

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